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Java Database Connectivity With Oracle

Connect Java applications with Oracle databases using JDBC. Learn to establish a smooth connection, execute queries, and perform database operations.

Java Database Connectivity With Oracle

Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) is a widely used API that provides a standardized way to connect Java applications with databases. Oracle, being one of the most popular and powerful relational database management systems, is often used in enterprise-level applications. In this article, we will explore how to establish database connectivity with Oracle using JDBC. We will cover each step in detail and provide code examples in Java.

Things to Check Before Starting

Before diving into Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) with Oracle, there are a few things to consider to ensure a smooth and successful experience. These considerations will help avoid potential issues and ensure that everything is in place before starting JDBC development with Oracle.

Let's explore the important aspects to check:

Oracle Database Installation

Make sure that Oracle Database is installed on the system or is accessible through a remote Oracle database server. Oracle has a website where developers can download and install Oracle Database. They need to ensure that they have the username and password required to connect to the Oracle database.

Oracle JDBC Driver

To connect JDBC to Oracle, developers need to get the right Oracle JDBC driver. They can get the JDBC driver from Oracle's website or add it to the project as a dependency if they are using a build tool like Maven or Gradle.

Database URL

Identify the correct database URL for the Oracle database. The URL format may vary depending on the Oracle database version and configuration. Typically, the format is jdbc:oracle:thin:@hostname:port:database. Replace hostname, port, and database with the appropriate values.

Username and Password

Ensure that the correct username and password are available to connect to the Oracle database. These credentials are necessary for establishing the JDBC connection. If working in a development environment, specific usernames and passwords might have been set up. Provide the appropriate credentials in the JDBC code.

Oracle Database Listener

Confirm that the Oracle Database Listener is running. The Listener accepts incoming client connections to the Oracle database. Ensure the Listener is up and running on the server hosting the Oracle database.

Permissions and Privileges

Check if the specified user in the JDBC connection code has the necessary permissions and privileges to perform required database operations. Ensure the user has appropriate read and write access to the tables and data being worked with.

By verifying these aspects before starting JDBC development with Oracle, potential hurdles can be avoided, and a smooth connection establishment and database interaction can be ensured.

Create a Table

Before establishing a connection with Oracle using JDBC, it's important to have a table in the database to work with. In this section, we'll cover how to create a table in Oracle using SQL. Once the table is created, developers can proceed with JDBC to perform various database operations.

To create a table in Oracle, they need to execute a SQL query. The query should specify the table name and define the columns along with their data types and constraints. Here's an example of a SQL query to create a simple "employees" table:

In this example, columns "employee_id", "first_name", "last_name", "hire_date", and "salary" along with their respective data types are defined. The "NUMBER" data type specifies the maximum number of digits and decimal places. "VARCHAR2" is used for variable-length character data, and "DATE" represents a date value.

Developers can execute this SQL query using a Statement object in JDBC. Here's an example of creating the "employees" table in Java:

The executeUpdate() method is used to execute the SQL query that creates the table.

Once the table is created, a developer can use it for various database operations like inserting data, updating records, or retrieving information.

Note that the table structure and column names can be customized according to specific requirements. Ensure that the column names and data types match the ones in the Java application.

Connecting Java Applications with the Oracle Database

This section focuses on the key steps involved in connecting JDBC with Oracle, providing a clear roadmap to follow for smooth integration.

Step 1: Load the JDBC Driver

To establish a connection with Oracle using JDBC, developers need to load the Oracle JDBC driver. The driver class name for Oracle is oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver. They can load the driver using the Class.forName() method as follows:

Step 2: Create a Connection

After loading the driver, developers can create a connection to the Oracle database using the DriverManager.getConnection() method. They  need to provide the database URL, username, and password as parameters. Here's an example:

String url = "jdbc:oracle:thin:@localhost:1521:XE";String username = "your_username";String password = "your_password";Connection connection = DriverManager.getConnection(url, username, password);

Developers should ensure that they replace "your_username" and "your_password" with the actual Oracle credentials. Also, note that the URL format may vary depending on the Oracle database version and configuration.

Step 3: Execute Queries

Once the connection is established, developers can execute SQL queries using the Statement or PreparedStatement objects. The Statement interface provides a way to execute general SQL statements, while PreparedStatement is used for parameterized queries. Here's an example of executing a simple query using Statement:

Step 4: Process Results

After running the query, developers can use a ResultSet object to get the results. The ResultSet interface has ways to move between rows and get data from particular columns. They can go through the result set one by one and extract the information they want. For example:

Make sure to replace "employee_id" and "employee_name" with the actual column names from the Oracle database.

Step 5: Close Resources

Once developers have finished working with the JDBC objects, it is essential to close them to release resources. They should close the ResultSet, Statement, and Connection objects in the reverse order of their creation. Here's an example:

By closing the resources properly, they free up database connections and avoid potential memory leaks.

Remember to handle exceptions appropriately by using try-catch blocks or throwing exceptions. JDBC operations can throw SQLException, so it's important to handle any potential errors that may occur during database interactions.

Load the ojdbc14.jar file

To establish a connection between a Java application and an Oracle database, it is necessary to load the ojdbc14.jar file. This file contains the essential classes and dependencies needed for JDBC connectivity with Oracle.

To obtain the ojdbc14.jar file, download it from Oracle's official website. Ensure to choose the appropriate version that matches the Oracle database and Java Development Kit (JDK) version.

Once developers have the ojdbc14.jar file, there are two ways to load it:

  1. Paste the ojdbc14.jar file in the jre/lib/ext Folder:
  2. Find the jre/lib/ext folder in your Java installation directory.
  3. Copy the ojdbc14.jar file and paste it into the jre/lib/ext folder.
  4. This method makes the JDBC driver available globally to all Java applications running on the system.
  5. Set the Classpath:
  6. If developers prefer not to modify the Java installation directory, set the classpath to include the location of the ojdbc14.jar file.
  7. The classpath specifies the directories or JAR files where Java looks for classes and resources.
  8. There are two ways to set the classpath: temporary and permanent. Let's explore both approaches using code examples:

Temporary Classpath Setting:

  1. To set the classpath temporarily during runtime, they can use the -classpath or -cp option while executing the Java application.
  2. Specify the location of the ojdbc14.jar file or any other required JAR files or directories.
  3. Here's an example command to set the classpath temporarily:
  1. In the above example, /path/to/ojdbc14.jar represents the actual path to the ojdbc14.jar file, and /path/to/other/libraries represents the path to any additional JAR files or directories required for the application. MainClass should be replaced with the fully qualified name of the main class.

Permanent Classpath Setting:

  1. To set the classpath permanently, modify the CLASSPATH environment variable.
  2. Add the path to the ojdbc14.jar file or any other required JAR files or directories to the CLASSPATH variable.
  3. Here's an example of setting the CLASSPATH environment variable in a Unix-based system:
  1. In the above example, /path/to/ojdbc14.jar represents the actual path to the ojdbc14.jar file, and /path/to/other/libraries represents the path to any additional JAR files or directories required for an application. Make sure to adjust the command based on the specific operating system.


In conclusion, using JDBC to connect Java applications with Oracle databases is a powerful solution. By following the steps we discussed, you can establish a smooth connection and perform important tasks, like executing queries and managing data. This integration of JDBC and Oracle opens up exciting possibilities for creating strong and data-driven applications.

To learn more about database connectivity and other advanced technologies, read our blogs available our website.

Cogent University provides best-in-class programs and courses designed to upskill technical talent and equip aspiring developers with the necessary expertise to excel in the industry.

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