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May 10, 2023

Starting Your Journey With Generics In Java

Explore the transformative power of Java generics. Elevate coding skills with type safety, reusability, and efficiency.

Starting Your Journey With Generics In Java

In the programming world, Java stands as a venerable giant, having played a pivotal role in software development for decades. A significant chapter in its evolution is the incorporation of Generics, a feature that has become integral to modern Java programming.

Java's enduring popularity is evident, as highlighted by the Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2022, which revealed that it is used by more than 33% of developers. This data emphasizes the importance of understanding Generics in Java. This article explains all about Java Generics. It's not about flashy terminology or abstract concepts; it's about practical knowledge that empowers developers.

From the nuances of generic methods to the challenges posed by type erasure, this guide will equip everyone with the essential insights needed to wield Generics effectively in Java. So, let's get started and understand how Generics work.

Generic Methods

Generic methods provide a powerful means to write versatile and reusable code. A generic method is not tied to a specific data type; it works with various data types, determining when the method is called.

Here's a simple example of a generic method:

In this code, the printArray method is declared as a generic method with the <T> type parameter. This type parameter acts as a placeholder for the actual data type that will be provided when the method is called.

In the main method, one can create an instance of the GenericMethodExample class and use the printArray method to print both an array of integers and an array of strings.


The printArray method works seamlessly with different data types. This versatility is a hallmark of generics in Java, allowing developers to write methods that can handle a wide range of data without duplicating code. This not only enhances code readability but also promotes code reuse, a fundamental principle of efficient and maintainable software development.

In this example, <T> is a type parameter that signifies the method's generic nature. The type parameter <T> acts as a placeholder for the actual data type that will be provided when the method is invoked.

Generic Constructors

In Java Generics, it's not just methods that can be generic; constructors can be too. Generic constructors create the objects with data types that are determined at runtime, providing flexibility and reusability.

Let's explore this concept with an example:

In this example, the Box class has a generic constructor. It takes an argument of type T, which is determined when one creates an instance of the Box class. In the main method, developers can create two different Box objects—one containing an Integer and the other containing a String.

Here's the output of the program:

The generic constructor allows developers to create Box objects with different data types while ensuring type safety. It's a powerful feature that enhances code reusability and adaptability.

Bounded Type Parameters

In Java Generics, there is a tool called "bounded type parameters" that can be used to improve the flexibility of generic types. These parameters tell a type parameter that it needs to extend a certain class or implement an interface. This constraint makes sure that the types used with a generic class or method meet certain requirements. It gives the code an extra layer of type safety.

Let's have a look at the concept of bounded type parameters with an instructive example:

This example shows that the DataProcessor class employs a bounded type parameter T that must extend the Number class. This constraint guarantees that the data used with DataProcessor is numeric, allowing numeric operations to be performed on it.

Observe the code execution

  • intProcessor is created with an Integer value and it successfully calculates and prints the square of the Integer.
  • doubleProcessor is instantiated with a Double value and it effectively computes and displays the square of the Double.

If in case a developer tries to make a  DataProcessor with a String, as demonstrated in the commented-out line, it won't compile. This is because String does not extend the Number class, violating the bounded type parameter constraint.

Bounded type parameters furnish the code with an additional layer of robustness, ensuring that only types meeting specific criteria are accepted by the generic classes or methods.

Generic Class

In the domain of Java Generics, it's not just methods and constructors that can be generic; entire classes can embrace generics as well. A generic class offers the flexibility to create instances with different data types while preserving type safety throughout the codebase.

Let's understand the concept of generic classes with an example:

In this example, the generic class named Box is shown. The class uses a type parameter T to represent the type of content it holds. The constructor of Box accepts an argument of type T, and the getContent method returns the content of the box, ensuring that the type safety is preserved.

Now, let's observe the code execution

  • Box of Integer is created here, which is called intBox, initializing it with the value 42. When developers retrieve and print the content, it correctly displays "Boxed Integer: 42".
  • Similarly, Box of String is created, which is called strBox, initializing it with the string "Hello, Generics!". When developers retrieve and print the content, it correctly displays "Boxed String: Hello, Generics!".

This demonstration underscores the versatility of generic classes in Java. They allow to create classes that can adapt to different data types, ensuring type safety throughout the code.

Generic classes are a valuable tool in the Java programming arsenal, as they enhance code reusability and maintainability, enabling organizations to work with a wide range of data types effortlessly.

Generic Interfaces

Within the domain of Java Generics, the utility of genericity extends beyond classes to interfaces as well. Generic interfaces offer the means to design versatile interfaces capable of functioning with various data types while upholding type safety.

Let's delve into the concept of generic interfaces through a concise example:

In this example, a generic interface named Pair is defined that specifies two methods, getFirst, and getSecond, both of which return values of different data types represented by type parameters T and U, respectively.

Subsequently, implementation of this generic interface is done with the OrderedPair class, which accepts two generic types, T and U, in its constructor. The class provides concrete implementations for the interface's methods.

Now, let's examine the code execution

  • Create two pairs, pair1, and pair2, with different data types. pair1 holds a String and an Integer, while pair2 contains a Double and a String.
  • Print the contents of both pairs, demonstrating the successful retrieval of data of distinct types from the generic interface.

This example elucidates the practicality of generic interfaces in Java. They empower the creation of interfaces capable of accommodating diverse data types, reinforcing type safety throughout the codebase.

Raw Types and Legacy Code

In the context of Java Generics, raw types represent a vestige of earlier Java versions before the integration of generics. Raw types lack the parameterization that characterizes generic classes and methods. They serve as a transitional mechanism during the evolution of Java, prior to the full-scale adoption of generics.

To illustrate this concept, consider the following legacy scenario:

In this example, a raw-type List named myList is created. Lacking type parameterization, it is open to receiving elements of diverse types without compiler objections. Consequently, both a string and an integer are added to this list without constraint.

However, complications arise during element retrieval. To access the stored elements, explicit casting is necessary, introducing a susceptibility to runtime errors if the types do not align.

The program produces the following output

The underlying lesson is that raw types, while operationally functional, forfeit the type safety introduced by generics. They are chiefly retained to accommodate legacy code predating the introduction of generics in Java.

In modern Java programming, it is advisable to minimize the use of raw types in favor of generics. Generics furnish more robust type checking, enabling the detection of type-related issues at compile time rather than runtime. Raw types should be reserved primarily for interfacing with legacy code, as generics represent the preferred approach in contemporary Java development, promoting enhanced code quality and reliability.

Bounded Wildcards

Within Java Generics, bounded wildcards offer a means to enhance the flexibility of generic types while maintaining type safety. Bounded wildcards are denoted by ? and can be bound to a specific class or interface. They permit more extensive parameterization possibilities while adhering to certain constraints.

Here is a concise illustration of bounded wildcards:

In this example, a generic method calculateTotalPrice is explained that accepts a list of fruits or any of its subclasses. The bounded wildcard ? extends Fruit signifies that the list can contain objects of type Fruit or any subclass of Fruit. This allows to calculate the total price of a list of fruits regardless of their specific types.

In the main method, a list of Apple and Banana objects is created, and the calculation of their total prices is done using the calculateTotalPrice method. The bounded wildcard allows developers to work with different fruit types while maintaining type safety.

When working with generic types that need to work on objects of a certain class or its subclasses, bounded wildcards are a useful feature. They give the code a certain amount of flexibility that works with certain constraints. This keeps the code type safe and flexible.

Generic Restrictions

Certain restrictions and limitations govern the usage of generics, ensuring that type safety is maintained and potential issues are mitigated. Let's explore some of these key restrictions:

Type Parameters Can't Be Instantiated

One fundamental restriction is that type parameters themselves cannot be instantiated. For example, developers can't create an object directly with a type parameter. Here's an illustration:

The inability to instantiate type parameters prevents potential issues and ambiguities in generic code.

Restrictions on Static Members

When working with generic classes or interfaces, static developers cannot access type parameters. For instance, they can't refer to the type parameter T within a static context:

Static members should operate independently of the generic type.

Generic Array Restrictions

Creating arrays of generic types is subject to limitations. Developers cannot create an array of a generic type directly:

Instead, they can use techniques like type casting or workarounds to manage arrays with generics.

Generic Exception Restriction

Generics and exceptions have certain restrictions as well. Developers cannot instantiate a generic class with a type parameter in a catch block:

Exception handling in a generic context should follow specific guidelines to ensure type safety.

Understanding these restrictions is crucial when working with generics in Java. They are designed to uphold type safety and prevent potential issues that can arise in generic code.

Erasure, Ambiguity Errors, and Bridge Methods

The concepts of type erasure, ambiguity errors, and bridge methods are critical to understanding how generics work under the hood.

Type Erasure

Generics in Java are implemented using type erasure, which means that generic type information is erased at runtime. During compilation, generic types are used to ensure type safety, but at runtime, they are replaced with their raw types. For example:

Both strings and integers become ArrayList objects at runtime due to type erasure. This erasure is essential to maintain backward compatibility with older Java code that does not support generics.

Ambiguity Errors

Generics can sometimes lead to ambiguity errors, especially when overloading methods. Consider the following example:

Here, when developers attempt to call process with a List<String> or List<Integer>, the compiler cannot determine which method to invoke because of type erasure. This results in an ambiguity error. To resolve such issues, change method names or rethink the design.

Bridge Methods

Bridge methods are automatically generated by the compiler to ensure compatibility between generic and non-generic code. They bridge the gap between erasure and generic types. Consider this example:

When compiled, a bridge method is generated to ensure compatibility with non-generic code:

Bridge methods are usually transparent to developers, but they must keep things consistent when generics and type erasure are used.

While working with Java Generics, it's important to understand these ideas: type erasure, ambiguity errors, and bridge methods. They are important parts of how generics work in Java and can help developers write more reliable code and less likely to have bugs when generic types are present.


Generics are a powerful and flexible feature that improves type safety and makes code easier to reuse. Whether developers make generic methods, constructors, classes, or interfaces, knowing how to use generics well can help them become much better Java programmers.

Generics have many benefits but also have problems, such as erasing types and dealing with legacy code. But if developers learn how generics work, they can use them in the right manner and write Java code that is more reliable, flexible, and type-safe.

Remember that knowledge is the most potent asset in the journey with Java and generics. Cogent University is your perfect partner to upgrade your career, offering comprehensive programs that empower aspiring developers to master the intricacies of Java and generics.

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